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Douglas R. Lloyd

Professor Emeritus

Educational Qualifications

Ph.D., University of Waterloo (1977)


Microporous membranes and membrane separations


The thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) process is being used to form microporous polymeric membranes for a variety of industrially important applications. Of particular interest are membranes that can withstand high temperatures and harsh chemical environments, and membranes that have narrow pore size distribution. Specific targets are improved membranes for biological separations (such as hemodialysis and virus removal from blood), more robust membranes for industrial process streams, and more efficient separators for lithium ion batteries and NiCd batteries.

Our research on the formation and application of membranes includes fundamental scientific studies and practical technical studies. The fundamental studies provide the scientific understanding necessary to develop the improved membranes that are needed by industry. The technical studies, which are conducted in conjunction with industrial sponsors, put the fundamental knowledge into practice.

The research in this group is enhanced by interactions with Professor Bonnecaze and Freeman of this department, Professor Lawler of our Environmental Engineering Program, and Professor G.G. Lipscomb of the University of Toledo as well as numerous industrial contacts.

Our research is funded by a combination of agency and industrial money.

Awards & Honors

  • North American Membrane Society Co-founder (1985) and President (1994-95)
  • Alumni Achievement Award, University of Waterloo (1995)

Selected Publications

  • M. Shang, H. Matsuyama, M. Teramoto, D.R. Lloyd, N. Kubota, “Preparation and membrane performance of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) hollow fiber membranes via thermally induced phase separation.”  Polymer44, 7441–7447 (2003).
  • T. Tanaka and D.R. Lloyd, “Formation of poly(L-lactic acid) microfiltration membranes via thermally induced phase separation.” J. Membr. Sci.238, 65–73 (2004).
  • T. Tanaka, T. Tsuchiya, H. Takahashi, M. Taniguchi, H. Ohara, and D.R. Lloyd, “Formation of Biodegradable Polyester Membranes via Thermally Induced Phase Separation.”  Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 39(2), 144–163 (2006).
  • J.A. Morehouse, L.S. Worrel, D.L. Taylor, B.D. Freeman, and D.F. Lawler, “The Effect of Uni-axial Orientation on Macroporous Membrane Structure.”  Journal of Porous Materials13, 61–72 (2006).
  • J.A. Morehouse, D.L. Taylor, D.R. Lloyd, D.F. Lawler, B.D. Freeman, and L.S. Worrel, “The Effect of Uni-axial Stretching on the Roughness of Microfiltration Membranes.”  J. Membr. Sci., 280, 712–719 (2006).
  • L.S. Worrel, J.A. Morehouse, L.A. Shimko, D.R. Lloyd, D.F. Lawler, and B.D. Freeman, “Enhancement of Track-etched Membrane Performance via Stretching.” Separations and Purification Technology,  53 71–80 (2007).
  • P.L. Hanks, K.J. Kaczorowski, and D.R. Lloyd, “Modeling of uni-axial stretching of track-etch membranes.”  J. Membr. Sci.  305, 196–202 (2007).
  • P.L. Hanks and D.R. Lloyd, “Deterministic model for matrix solidification in Liquid-Liquid Thermally Induced Phase Separation.” J. Membr. Sci. 306, 125–133 (2007).
  • P.L. Hanks, C.A. Forschner, and D.R. Lloyd, “Sieve mechanism estimations for microfiltration membranes with elliptical pores.”J. Membr. Sci.322, 91–97 (2008).
  • C.V. Funk and D.R. Lloyd, “Microporous mixed matrix (ZeoTIPS) membranes: prediction of gas separation performance.”  J. Membr. Sci. in press.
  • C.V. Funk, P.L. Hanks, K.J. Kaczorowski, and D.R. Lloyd, “Diluent crystal alignment in the formation of membranes via liquid–solid thermally induced phase separation.”   J. Porous Materials, in press.
  • C.V. Funk, B.L. Beavers, and D.R. Lloyd, “Effect of particulate filler on cell size in membranes formed via liquid–liquid thermally induced phase separation. ” J. Membr. Sci., in press.
  • D.R. Lloyd, P.L. Hanks, C.V. Funks, and S. Berghmans, “Membrane Formation via Thermally Induced Phase Separation: An Overview.” submitted.